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ISO14000简介
                                    

ISO14000情况办理系统
     ISO14000情况办理系列尺度是国际尺度化构造(ISO)公布的序列号为14000的一系列用于标准各种构造的情况办理的尺度。国际尺度化构造建立于1974年,是当当代界上最大的国际尺度化机构,也是最大的国际迷信技能构造,已公布了少量的产业与产品尺度,也有办理尺度如ISO9000质量系列。
    国际尺度化构造为订定ISO14000情况办理系列尺度于1993年6月设立了第207技能委员会(TC207)。它是在国际情况掩护大趋向下,在92年团结国情况与开展大会之后建立的,下设了6年分委员会和一个事情组,内容触及情况办理系统(EMS)、情况办理系统考核(EA)、情况标记(EL)、生命周期评价(LCA)、情况举动评价(EPE)等国际情况办理范畴的研讨与理论的核心题目,是近十年来情况掩护范畴的新开展、新头脑,是列国彩取的情况经济商业政策手腕的总结,内容十分丰厚。TC207的事情是行之有效[háng zhī yǒu xiào]的,用三年工夫完成了情况办理系统和情况考核尺度订定事情,其他尺度因外部分岐较大,做为正式国际尺度出台尚需时日。我国于1995年10月建立了天下情况办理尺度化委员会,敏捷对5个尺度举行了同等转换,因此情况办理系统及情况考核也就组成了明天意义上的ISO14000的次要内在。这5个尺度是:
    GB/T24001-ISO14001 情况办理系统-标准及利用指南
    GB/T24004-ISO14004 情况办理系统-原理、系统和支持技能通用指南
    GB/T24010-ISO14010 情况考核指南-通用准绳
    GB/T24011-ISO14011 情况办理考核-考核步伐-情况办理系统考核
    GB/T24012-ISO14012 情况办理考核指南-情况办理考核员资历要求
    ISO14001为各种构造提供了一个尺度化的情况办理形式,即情况办理系统(EMS)。尺度对情况办理系统的界说是:“情况办理系统是片面办理系统的构成局部,包罗订定、实行、完成、评审和维护情况目标所需的构造布局、筹划运动、职责、操纵常规、步伐、历程和资源”。实践上,情况办理系统便是企业外部对情况事件实行办理的部分、职员、办理制度、操纵规程及响应的硬件步伐。一样平常的,企业对情况事件都举行着办理,但大概不敷片面不体系,不克不及称之为情况办理系统。另一方面,这套办理措施能否能真的对情况事件无效?能否能合适社会开展需求?顺应情况掩护的要求?在这些题目上各企业之间差别很大。情况题目的紧张性日益明显,分外是它在国际商业中的位置越来越紧张,国际尺度化构造总结了ISO9000的乐成履历,对办理尺度举行了修正,针对情况题目,订定了ISO14001尺度。可以以为ISO14001尺度所提供的情况办理系统是办理实际上迷信、理论中可行、国际上公认、且卓有成效[zhuó yǒu chéng xiào]的。
    ISO14001所划定的情况办理系统共有17个方面的要求,依据各条款功效的相似性,可归结为5方面的内容:情况目标、计划(筹划)、实行与运转、反省与改正步伐、办理评审等。这五个方面逻辑上连接分歧、步调上相辅相承,配合包管系统的无效创建和实行,并继续改良,出现螺旋上升之势。起首,实行情况办理系统必需失掉最高办理者的答应,构成情况办理的引导准绳和实行的主旨,即情况目标,要找出企业情况办理的重点,构成企业情况目的和目标;其次,贯彻企业的情况目标目的,确定实行办法、操纵规程,确珍重大的情况要素处于受控形态;再次,为包管系统的实用和无效,设立监视、检测和改正机制;最初经过考核与评审,促进系统的进一步美满和改良进步,完成一次办理系统的循环上升和继续改良。

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ISO14000 environmental management system
ISO14000 series standard is the international organization for standardization (ISO) issued a series of the serial number for 14,000 for regulating various organizations of environmental management standards. The international organization for standardization founded in 1974, is the world's largest international standardization organization, is also the biggest international science and technology organizations, has a lot of industrial products and standard; also have standard of ISO9000 quality management such as series.
The international organization for standardization for ISO14000 series standards formulated in June 1993 established the 207th technical committee (TC207). It is in the international environment protection under the big trend in 1992 UN conference on environment and development, has established after 6 years working committee and a portion, environmental management system (EMS), environment management system audit (EA), environment mark (EL), life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental behavior evaluation (international environmental management etc.) EPE field of research and practice, is the focus of nearly ten years in the field of environmental protection, new thoughts, new development is the color of the economic trade policy environment, very informative. TC207 work is fruitful, with three years time to complete the environment management system and environmental auditing standards work, in part because of other standards, as a formal gushy escalating stage of international standard. In October 1995, a national environmental management standardization commission, rapid for five criteria on the equivalent conversion, and environmental management system and environment audit also make up today's main sense of ISO14000. This 5 standard is:
GB/t24001-iso14001 environment management system - code and guide
GB/T24004 - ISO14004 environmental management system, the system and the principle of - general guidelines supporting technologies
GB/T24010 - ISO14010 environment audit guidelines - general principles
GB/T24011 - ISO14011 environmental management review - audit procedure - environment management system audit
GB/T24012 - ISO14012 environmental management audit guidelines - environmental management certification requirements
For all kinds of ISO14001 organization provides a standard of environmental management mode, namely environmental management system (EMS). Standard of environmental management system is defined as the "environmental management system is the comprehensive management system components, including the formulation, implementation and maintenance, implementation, evaluation of environmental policy, planning and organization structure for activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources". Actually, environment management system of environmental affairs is the enterprise internal management department, staff, management system and operation procedures and the corresponding hardware measures. Generally, the enterprises of environmental affairs are carried out, but may not comprehensive management system, can not called environmental management system. On the other hand, the administrative measures for environmental affairs can really effective? Whether to suit the requirements of social development? Adapt to the requirements of environmental protection? In these problems between each enterprise difference is very big. The importance of environment problem increasingly remarkable in international trade, especially it is more and more important role in the international organization for standardization, summarized the successful experience of ISO9000 quality management standards have been modified, according to environmental problems, formulate the ISO14001 standard. Can think ISO14001 criteria provided the environment management system is management theory and practice of science is feasible and international recognized and effective.
The ISO14001 environmental management system by Shared 17 requirements, according to the provisions of the function, can be divided into five analogue of content: the environmental policy, planning, implementation and operation plan), check and corrective actions and management review. These five respects logical consistency, steps, auxiliary accord photogenic the effective guarantee system, build and implement, and continuous improvement, the spiral. First, the implementation of environmental management system must get top management commitment, forming the environmental management guiding principles and implementation, namely environmental policy, to find out the key enterprise of environmental management, enterprise environmental objectives and targets, Secondly, implement enterprise's environmental policy objectives and implementation methods, procedures, to ensure that the major environmental factors are controlled, Again, as applicable, and effective guarantee system, establish supervisory, detection and correction mechanism, Finally, through audits and reviews, promoting system should be further improved and improvement, and complete management system of circular ascendant and continuous improvement.

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